The first attempts to introduce postgraduate training of doctors in Ukraine were made at the end of the 80s of the nineteenth century and were related to the activity of the Kharkiv Medical Society (1861), when in 1889 Full Professor V.P. Krylov organized repetitive and demonstrative courses on bacteriology on the basis of the Pasteur Station and the Kharkiv Bacteriological Institute. It was aimed at studying the causes of infectious diseases, the properties of the infection, the ways of its transmission and distribution, as well as the measures of epidemic control.

Less than a decade later, in 1897 Full Professor V.K. Vysokovych organized systematic courses on theoretical and practical bacteriology in Kyiv on the basis of the Bacteriological Institute, and in 1901 the first courses in the Russian Empire on pathologic anatomy.

Thus, the leading scientists from medical faculties of Kharkiv and Kyiv universities were among the sources of postgraduate medical education. However, the foundation of its specialized educational institution, the modern Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, became possible only during the period of Ukrainian statehood (1917-1919), during the revival of Ukrainian education, science and culture.

The establishment of such a specialized institution was due to social and political processes that took place in Ukraine after the October Revolution of 1917, when in a short time the country had passed several stages of its statehood: from subordination to the Russian Empire, declaration of the national-territorial autonomy by the Ukrainian Central Rada, and in November 1917 — the Ukrainian People's Republic, which in January 1918 declared its independence and elected the first president, to the proclamation of the Ukrainian State by Hetman P. Skoropadskyi in April 1918.

However, this brief historical period was marked by the revival of the Ukrainian culture and education, including medical. It was during the reign of the Ukrainian Central Rada that the formation of a national education system was one of the priority directions in its activities and therefore, in October 5, 1917, the Ukrainian People's University was established as the initial form of foundation of the higher national Ukrainian school, including its medical department. The idea of the creation of this educational institution belonged to the Ukrainian Scientific Society (1907), which undertook considerable work in the struggle against the Provisional Government of Russia for the right to establish a full-fledged Ukrainian university, as well as with the pro-Russian University of St. Volodymyr, which, according to O.V. Korchak-Chepurkivskyi (1928), did not recognize the rights of the Ukrainian nation to organize their own university, claiming that Ukrainians do not have any scientific forces or a scientific language.

The opening of medical faculty of the Ukrainian National University (1917) was the result of a national struggle against the principle of “single and indivisible Russia”.

In an effort to expand national education, the Ukrainian Central Rada in March 1918 outlined the plan for the establishment of a network of Ukrainian universities throughout Ukraine, which envisaged the opening of state universities in Kyiv, Kamianets-Podilskyi and Yekaterinoslav, as well as national universities in Kharkiv, Sumy, Poltava, Kremenchug, Cherkasy, Zhytomyr, Vinnytsia and Chernihiv. However, not all of these intentions were achieved.

A significant contribution to the treasury of Ukrainian science and education was the foundation of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences on November 24, 1918, which was created on the basis of the Ukrainian Scientific Society, renaming of the Ukrainian National University as the Kiev State University of Ukraine in July 1918, opening of the same university in Kamianets-Podilskyi on 22 October, 1918.

On May 3, 1918, there was founded the Ministry of Public Health and Welfare (Minister V.Yu. Liubinskyi), which was the first in the history of Ukraine its own national central government authority at the level of the Ministry. All medical institutions of Ukraine and the personnel were subordinated to the Ministry. It was located at 22 Reitarska str..